This article will discuss the contribution of Halford John Mackinder, one of the earliest and most influential of the contributors to the discussion. Around the young geographer, Halford J. Mackinder, grew concerned with the changing balance of international power. He argued that. This largely outdated view influenced some geopolitical thinking. Sir Halford John Mackinder was a British geographer who wrote a paper in.

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Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. It is fetishistically concerned with “insight,” and “prophecy. Geopolitics as grand strategy was one of the important intellectual foundations for the West’s Cold War containment policy.

Halford Mackinder – Wikipedia

Carr, Paul Vidal de la Blache, and others applied materialist approaches to contemporary problems. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mackinder clearly did not anticipate, and Gray does not take into account, the implications of bombers that can take off from Missouri, drop their bombload on Kosovo, and land back in Missouri.

The vital question was how to secure control for the Heartland. A Study in the Politics of Mackindreappeared in The railroad put land powers on equal footing with those of the sea, and the vast flat steppes gdopolitics the Heartland in the best position to exploit that new technology and mobility, especially since the Heartland afforded shorter, interior lines of movement.

The Heartland’s size and central position made it the key to controlling the World-Island. The combined empire’s large East Asian coastline would also provide the potential for it to become a major sea power. Central positioning has led to a state of permanent insecurity, which has poisoned Russia’s relations with its neighbors.

Halford Mackinder

The idea that halforc Heartland power has any advantages due to its position on the map cannot be historically or theoretically justified; the notion that an imbalance of power in Eurasia even if it were conceivable would somehow threaten the interests of the United States is not tenable; and the mackindr that geographic “realities” of power can operate outside of the context of ideology, nationalism, and culture is pure fantasy.


Simon Dalby, “American Security Discourse: Mackinder might have been the first strategist in history to suggest that the surrounded have the advantage. He envisioned haflord being guarded by natural geographical formations that make it almost impregnable to attack, specifically the “ice-clad Polar Sea, forested and rugged Lenaland [Siberia east of the Yenisei River], and the Central Asiatic mountain and arid tableland. Mackinder, Britain and the British Seas.

As Mackinder himself put it, “a platform has been given to a geographer”. When he turned to the study of history, he remarked geopolitica he was returning “to an old interest and took up modern history with the idea of seeing how the theory mackkinder evolution would appear in human development”.

Mackinder and the geopoliticians who have followed thought that geography favored the Heartland power for five key reasons: Using Mackinder’s own qualifications, it appears that he has placed the key geographical position in the wrong part of the world.

Hence, they argued that the pivot of the global political power was the land control of the Eurasia while a naval power -such as the Great Britain- was playing a secondary role. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Large sections of the Heartland are not and will never be productive.

At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. Sir Halford John Mackinder. His Machiavellian approach was infamously devoid of ideology or “sentimentality”and as such caused the term geopolitics to fall out of favor with many of the foreign policy practitioners who followed.

Similarly, the central positioning of the Heartland of Eurasia has never been geopolitically advantageous to its inhabitants. His Britain and the British Seas2nd ed.

Martin’s Press,esp. There is a significant geographical overlap between the Heartland or “Pivot Area” and the Intermediate Region, with the exception of Germany – Prussia and north-eastern Chinawhich Kitsikis excludes from the Intermediate Region.


In our rapidly shrinking world, where air power can now be projected around the world haford any position, the geographical location of bases and indeed geography itself is becoming increasingly irrelevant.

Archived from the original PDF on 8 March gelpolitics Possibly disappointed at not getting a full chairmanship, Mackinder left Oxford geopoliyics became director of the London School of Economics in the same year [12]. These were created by the peace negotiators but proved to be ineffective bulwarks in although this may be seen as a failure of other, later statesmen during the interbellum.

For this perspective, and summation of Haushofer’s writings, see Hans W. The international system changes as fast as we can understand its functions, and often much faster.

The Geographical Pivot of History

Geopolitis does not make the case for the permanence of geographical factors upon grand strategy. To date, at least one academic study, by Mehmet Akif Okur, has critiqued the main perspective of his works.

But more important, the Heartland can be considered a fortress only by standards of 19th-century technology. He later became chairman of the GA from to and served as its President from Wartime paranoia fed an image of a secret German science of geopolitik that was driving Nazi action, bringing Mackinder and Haushofer onto the American intellectual radar screen. Sir Halford John Mackinder PC 15 February — 6 March was an English geographeracademic, politician, the first Principal of University Extension College, Reading which became the University of Reading and Director of the London School of Economicswho is regarded as one of the founding fathers of both geopolitics and geostrategy.

As unsettling as it may be, there are no “timeless truths” in world politics. Retrieved from ” https: