This article throws light upon the five stages in downstream processing. The five stages are: (1) Solid-Liquid Separation (2) Release of Intracellular Products (3). Downstream Processing means recovery of desired products from its crude extract. As we all know that downstream processing is a procedure of separation as well as recovery of yielded products that are manufactured by.

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In cross-flow filtration, the dkwnstreaming broth is pumped in a crosswise fashion dpwnstreaming the membrane. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Where expensive and complex separations are necessary, these should be run towards the end of process. The process of liquid-liquid extraction may be broadly categorized as extraction of low molecular weight products and extraction of high molecular weight products.

Downstream processing dowhstreaming to the recovery and purification of biosynthetic products, particularly pharmaceuticals, from natural sources such as animal or plant tissue or fermentation broth, including the recycling of salvageable components and the proper treatment and disposal of waste.

It is rather difficult to sterilize membrane filters. Tubular bowl centrifuge Fig. In other words, the pH determines the effective charge on both the target molecule and the ion-exchanger.

Typical operations to achieve this are filtrationcentrifugationsedimentationprecipitation, flocculationelectro-precipitationand gravity settling. Depending on the product and its intended use, polishing may also include operations to sterilize the product and remove or deactivate trace contaminants which might compromise product safety.

Lyophilization is based on the principle of sublimation of a liquid from a frozen state. Some authors use the term harvesting of microbial cells for the separation of cells from the culture medium.

Downstream Processing :- An Overview and Process steps

This technique is used for extraction of non-ionising compounds. The chemical and enzymatic methods described below are non- mechanical in nature. In the early days, activated charcoal was used as the adsorbent material. There is a variation in the centrifugal force in different chambers. Preparative LC-MS is used for purification, while other mass-spectrometric methods are applied for identification and structure elucidation.


A large number of matrices are commercially available for purification of proteins e. They form complexes with downstremaing charged protein molecules that causes charge neutralisation and precepitation. Removal of insolubles is the first step and involves the capture of the product as a solute in a particulate-free liquid, for example the separation of cellscell debris or other particulate matter from fermentation broth containing an antibiotic. Organic solvents cannot be used for protein extraction, as they lose their biological activities.

Crystallizationdesiccationlyophilization and spray drying are typical unit operations. However, this has not been practicable for various reasons.

Stages in Downstream Processing: 5 Stages

Proteins are also purified for characterization, for instance enzymes with new, or modified, activities developed by enzyme evolution and engineering. This is a technique in which volatile products can be separated by a process of permeation through a membrane coupled with evaporation. Downstream processing is usually considered a specialized field in biochemical engineeringitself a specialization within chemical engineeringthough many of the key technologies were developed by chemists and biologists for laboratory-scale separation of biological products.

Cell lysis is achieved by mechanical disruption under pressurereleasing the desired product into the lysate. Integration of certain stages in downstream processing for purification of product has met with some success. Ultrasonic disintegration is widely employed in the laboratory. This is an advanced technique working on the principle of membrane filtration coupled with solvent extraction. It has been successfully used for breaking E.

Downstream processing involves the purification of a specific molecule such as a protein or nucleic acid from the wet biomass. The immobilized ligand on a solid matrix can be effectively used to fish out complementary structures. Aim Downstream processing involves the purification of a specific molecule such as a protein or nucleic acid from the wet biomass.

Views Read Edit View history. It is ideal to integrate the fermentation and downstream processing to finally get the desired product. Downstream Methods Downstream processing embraces wide range of fractionation and purification methods.


For most products, water is the chief impurity and isolation steps are designed to remove most of it, reducing the volume of material to be handled and concentrating the product. As these products vary greatly in size and nature, different separation principles are required for their recovery and purification.

The organic solvent toluene is frequently used. Several water miscible organic solvents can be used to disrupt the cells e. It is downstreamibg an analytical technique dealing prlcess the separation of closely related compounds from a mixture. Principles of Downstream Processing.

Downstream processing embraces wide range of fractionation and purification methods. The department has experience and infrastructure for purification of small, bioactive molecules, as well as macromolecules such as proteins and virus. Most of the biological products of fermentation are sensitive to heat, and therefore require gentle drying methods.

The compounds are eluted by a mobile phase.

Downstream Processing :- An Overview and Process steps

Capture or polish model approach is currently used where the capturing step achieves most of the purification in one module and significantly reduces the feed volume by simultaneously concentrating the product in the flow-through. It can be conveniently used for the separation of biomolecules and particles, and for the concentration of fluids. However, it is quite difficult to extract hydrophilic compounds.

The steps of downstream process are: The Gram- positive bacteria with high content of cell wall mucopeptides are more susceptible for the action of lysozyme.

Product polishing describes the final processing steps which end with packaging of the product in a form that is stable, easily transportable and convenient.