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Please discuss this issue on the article’s talk page. The term is also used to mean automated trading system. These do indeed have the goal of making a profit. Also known as black box trading, these encompass trading strategies that are heavily reliant on complex mathematical formulas and high-speed computer programs.
Such systems run strategies including market making, inter-market spreading, arbitrage, or pure speculation such as trend following. A third of all European Union and United States stock trades in 2006 were driven by automatic programs, or algorithms. Algorithmic trading and HFT have been the subject of much public debate since the U. In practice this means that all program trades are entered with the aid of a computer. NYSE matched against the futures trade. Yet the impact of computer driven trading on stock market crashes is unclear and widely discussed in the academic community.
Financial markets with fully electronic execution and similar electronic communication networks developed in the late 1980s and 1990s. This increased market liquidity led to institutional traders splitting up orders according to computer algorithms so they could execute orders at a better average price. The trading that existed down the centuries has died. We have an electronic market today. As more electronic markets opened, other algorithmic trading strategies were introduced.
These strategies are more easily implemented by computers, because machines can react more rapidly to temporary mispricing and examine prices from several markets simultaneously. This type of trading is what is driving the new demand for low latency proximity hosting and global exchange connectivity. It is imperative to understand what latency is when putting together a strategy for electronic trading. Latency refers to the delay between the transmission of information from a source and the reception of the information at a destination.
Pairs trading or pair trading is a long-short, ideally market-neutral strategy enabling traders to profit from transient discrepancies in relative value of close substitutes. In finance, delta-neutral describes a portfolio of related financial securities, in which the portfolio value remains unchanged due to small changes in the value of the underlying security. Two assets with identical cash flows do not trade at the same price. Arbitrage is not simply the act of buying a product in one market and selling it in another for a higher price at some later time. The long and short transactions should ideally occur simultaneously to minimize the exposure to market risk, or the risk that prices may change on one market before both transactions are complete. In the simplest example, any good sold in one market should sell for the same price in another.
Traders may, for example, find that the price of wheat is lower in agricultural regions than in cities, purchase the good, and transport it to another region to sell at a higher price. This type of price arbitrage is the most common, but this simple example ignores the cost of transport, storage, risk, and other factors. Mean reversion is a mathematical methodology sometimes used for stock investing, but it can be applied to other processes. In general terms the idea is that both a stock’s high and low prices are temporary, and that a stock’s price tends to have an average price over time. Mean reversion involves first identifying the trading range for a stock, and then computing the average price using analytical techniques as it relates to assets, earnings, etc. When the current market price is less than the average price, the stock is considered attractive for purchase, with the expectation that the price will rise.
When the current market price is above the average price, the market price is expected to fall. In other words, deviations from the average price are expected to revert to the average. While reporting services provide the averages, identifying the high and low prices for the study period is still necessary. This procedure allows for profit for so long as price moves are less than this spread and normally involves establishing and liquidating a position quickly, usually within minutes or less. A market maker is basically a specialized scalper. The volume a market maker trades is many times more than the average individual scalper and would make use of more sophisticated trading systems and technology. However, registered market makers are bound by exchange rules stipulating their minimum quote obligations.